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  • 英语
  • 2011年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试大纲英语
  • 作者:洛阳教育局 浏览量: 21234
  • 2011年全国高等学校招生统一考试英语考纲

     

    . 考试性质

     

        普通高等学校招生全国统一考试是由合格的高中毕业生和具有同等学力的考生参加的选拔性考试。高等学校根据考生的成绩,按已确定的招生计划,德、智、体全面衡量,择优录取。因此,高考应有较高的信度、效度,适当的难度和必要的区分度。

     

    . 考试内容

    根据普通高等学校对新生文化素质的要求,依据中华人民共和国教育部2003年颁布的《普通高中课程方案(实验)》和《普通高中英语课程标准(实验)》,确定本学科考试内容。

     

    考核目标与要求

    一、语言知识

    要求考生掌握并能运用英语语音、词汇、语法基础知识以及所学功能意念和话题(见附录1至附录5),要求词汇量为3500左右。

    二、语言运用

    1 听力

    要求考生能听懂所熟悉话题的简短独白和对话。考生应能:

    (1)       理解主旨和要义;

    (2)       获取具体的、事实性信息;

    (3)       对所听内容作出判断;

    (4)       理解说话者的意图、观点和态度。

    2 阅读

    要求考生能读懂书、报、杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文段以及公告、说明、广告等,并能从中获取相关信息。考生应能:

    (1)    理解主旨和要义;

    (2)    理解文中具体信息;

    (3)    根据上下文推断生词的词义;

    (4)    作出判断和推理;

    (5)    理解文章的基本结构;

    (6)    理解作者的意图、观点和态度。

    3.写作

       要求考生根据题示进行书面表达。考生应能:

    1)清楚、连贯地传递信息,表达意思;

    2)有效运用所学语言知识。

    4.口语

       要求考生根据题示进行口头表达。考生应能:

    (1)       询问或传递事实性信息,表达意思和想法;

    (2)       做到语音、语调自然;

    (3)       做到语言运用得体;

    (4)       使用有效的交际策略。

     

    附录1 语音项目表

    1.      基本读音

    126个字母的读音

    2)元音字母在重读音节中的读音

    3)元音字母在轻读音节中的读音

    4)元音字母组合在重读音节中的读音

    5)常见的元音字母组合在轻读音节中的读音

    6)辅音字母组合的读音

    7)辅音连缀的读音

    8)成节音的读音

    2.      重音

    (1)    单词重音

    (2)    句子重音

    3.      读音的变化

    (1)    连读

    (2)    失去爆破

    (3)    弱读

    (4)    同化

    4.      语调与节奏

    (1)    意群与停顿

    (2)    语调

    (3)    节奏

    5 语音、语调、重音、节奏等在口语交流中的运用

    6 朗诵和演讲中的语音技巧

    7 主要英语国家的英语语音差异

     

    附录2 语法项目表

    1.    名词

    (1)    可数名词及其单复数

    (2)    不可数名词

    (3)    专有名词

    (4)    名词所有格

    2.    代词

    (1)    人称代词

    (2)    物主代词

    (3)    反身代词

    (4)    指示代词

    (5)    不定代词

    (6)    疑问代词

    3.    数词

    (1)    基数词

    (2)    序数词

    4.    介词和介词短语

    5.    连词

    6.    形容词(比较级和最高级)

    7.    副词(比较级和最高级)

    8.    冠词

    9.    动词

    (1)    动词的基本形式

    (2)    系动词

    (3)    及物动词和不及物动词

    (4)    助动词

    (5)    情态动词

    10.时态

    (1)    一般现在时

    (2)    一般过去时

    (3)    一般将来时

    (4)    现在进行时

    (5)    过去进行时

    (6)    过去将来时

    (7)    将来进行时

    (8)    现在完成时

    (9)    过去完成时

    (10)现在完成进行时

    11.被动语态

    12.非谓语动词

    (1)    动词不定式

    (2)    动词的-ing形式

    (3)    动词的-ed形式

    13.构词法

    (1)    合成法

    (2)    派生法

    (3)    转化法

    (4)    缩写和简写

    14.句子种类

    (2)    陈述句

    (3)    疑问句

    (4)    祈使句

    (5)    感叹句

    15.句子成分

    (2)    主语

    (3)    谓语

    (4)    表语

    (5)    宾语

    (6)    定语

    (7)    状语

    (8)    补语

    16.简单句的基本句型

    17.主谓一致

    18.并列复合句

    19.主从复合句

    (1)    宾语从句

    (2)    状语从句

    (3)    定语从句

    (4)    主语从句

    (5)    表语从句

    20.间接引语

    21.省略

    22.倒装

    23.强调

    24.虚拟语气

     

    附录3 功能意念项目表

    1.      社会交往(Social Communication)

    (1)    问候(Greetings)

    (2)    介绍(Introduction)

    (3)    告别(Farewells)

    (4)    感谢(Thanks)

    (5)    道歉(Apologies)

    (6)    邀请(Invitation)

    (7)    请求允许(Asking for permission)

    (8)    祝愿和祝贺(Expressing wishes and congratulations)

    (9)    提供帮助Offering help)

    (10)接受和拒绝(Acceptance and refusal)

    (11)约会(Making appointments)

    (12)打电话(Making telephone calls)

    (13)就餐(having meals)

    (14)就医(Seeing the doctor)

    (15)购物(Shopping)

    (16)问路(Asking the way)

    (17)谈论天气(Talking about weather)

    (18)语言交际困难(Language difficulties in communication)

    (19)提醒注意(Reminding)

    (20)警告和禁止(Warming and prohibition)

    (21)劝告(Advice)

    (22)建议(Suggestions)

    2.      态度(Attitudes)

    (23)同意和不同意(Agreement and disagreement)

    (24)喜欢和不喜欢(Likes and dislikes)

    (25)肯定和不肯定(Certainty and uncertainty)

    (26)可能和不可能(Possibility and impossibility)

    (27)能够和不能够(Ability and inability)

    (28)偏爱和优化选择(Preference)

    (29)意愿和打算(Intensions and plans)

    (30)希望和愿望 (Hopes and wishes)

    (31)表扬和鼓励(Praise and encouragement)

    (32)责备和抱怨(Blame and complaint)

    (33)冷淡(Indifference)

    (34)判断和评价(Judgement evaluation)

    3.      情感(Emotions)

    (35)高兴(Happiness)

    (36)惊奇(Surprise)

    (37)忧虑(Worries)

    (38)安慰(Reassurance)

    (39)满意(Satisfaction)

    (40)遗憾(Regret)

    (41)同情(Sympathy)

    (42)恐惧(Fear)

    (43)愤怒(Anger)

    4.      时间(Time)

    (44)时刻(Point of time)

    (45)时段(Duration)

    (46)频度Frequency)

    (47)时序(Sequence)

    5.      空间(Sequence)

    (48)位置(Position)

    (49)方向(Direction)

    (50)距离(Distance)

    6.      存在(Existence)

    (51)存在与不存在(Existence and Non-existence)

    7.      特征(Features)

    (52)形状(Shape)

    (53)颜色(Colour)

    (54)材料(Material)

    (55)价格(Price)

    (56)规格(Size)

    (57)年龄(Age)

    8.      计量(Measurement)

    (58)长度(Length)

    (59)宽度(Width)

    (60)高度(Height)

    (61)数量(Number)

    9.      比较(Comparison)

    (62)同级比较Equal comparison)

    (63)差别比较(Comparative and superlative)

    (64)相似和差别(Similarity and difference)

    10.  逻辑关系(logical relations)

    (65)原因和结果(Cause and effect)

    (66)目的(Purpose)

    11.  职业Occupations)

    (67)工作(Jobs)

    (68)单位Employer)

     

                            附录4 话题项目表

    1.      个人情况(Personal information

    2.      家庭、朋友与周围的人(Family friends and  people around

    3.      周围的环境(Personal environments

    4.      日常活动(Daily routines

    5.      学校生活(School life)

    6.      兴趣与爱好(Interests and hobbies)

    7.      个人感情(Emotions)

    8.      人际关系(Interpersonal relationships)

    9.      计划与愿望(Plans and intentions)

    10.  节假日活动(Festivals, holidays and celebrations)

    11.  购物(Shopping)

    12.  饮食(Food and Drink)

    13.  健康(health)

    14.  天气(Weather)

    15.  文娱与体育(Entertainment and sports)

    16.  旅游与交通(Travel and transport)

    17.  语言学习(Language learning)

    18.  自然(Nature)

    19.  世界与环境(The World and the environment)

    20.  科普知识与现代技术(Popular science and modern technology)

    21.  热点话题(Topical issues)

    22.  历史与地理(History and geography)

    23.  社会(Society)

    24.  文学与艺术(Literature and art)

       

    附录5 2011年高考英语词汇表

    A

     a/an, abandon, ability, able , abnormal, aboard, abolish, abortion, about, above, abroad, abrupt, absence,

    absent, absolute, absorb, abstract, absurd,  abundant, abuse, academic, academy, accelerate, accent, accept.

    access, accessible, accident, accommodation, accompany, accomplish, account, accountant, accumulate,

    accuracy, accurate, accuse, accustomed, ache ,achieve, achievement, acid, acknowledge, acquaintance,

    acquire, acquisition, acre, across, act, action, active, activity, actor, actress, actual, acute, AD, ad=

    advertisement, adapt, adaptation, add ,addicted, addition, address, adequate, adjust, adjustment,

    administration, admirable, admire, admission, admit, adolescence, adolescent, adopt, adore, adult, advance,

    advantage, adventure, advertise, advertisement, advice, advise, advocate, affair, affect, affection, afford, afraid,

    Africa, African, after, afternoon, afterward(s), again, against, age, agency, agenda, agent, aggressive, ago,

    agree, agreement, agricultural, agriculture, ahead, aid, AIDS, aim, air, aircraft, airline, airmail, airplane, airport,

    airspace, alarm, album, alcohol, alcoholic, algebra, alike, alive, all, allergic, alley, allocate, allow, allowance,

    almost, alone, along, alongside,  aloud, alphabet, already, also, alternative, although, altitudealtogether, always, aluminum, always, am, am./am, AM./AM amateur, amaze, amazing, America, ambassador(ambassadress),

    ambiguous, ambition, ambulance, among, amount, ample, amuse, amusement, analyse/ze, analysis, ancestor,

    anchor, ancient, and, anecdote, anger, angle, angry, animal, ankle, anniversary, announce, annoy, annual,

    another, answer, ant, Antarctic, antique, anxiety, anxious, any, anybody/anyone, anyhow, anything, anyway,

    anywhere, apart, apartment, apologize, apology, apparent, appeal, appear, appearance, appendix, applaud,

    apple, applicant, application, apply, appoint, appointment, appreciate, appreciation, appropriate, approval,

    approve, approximately, apron, arbitrary, arch, architecture, Arctic, are, area, argue, argument, arise

    (arose, arisen), arithmetic, arm, armchair, army, around, arrange, arrangement, arrest, arrival, arrive, arrow,

    art, article, artificial, artist, as, ash, ashamed, Asia, Asian, aside, ask, asleep, aspect, assess, assessment, assist,

    assistance, assistant, associate, association, assume, assumption, astonish, astronaut, astronomer, astronomy,

    at, athlete, athletic, Atlantic, atmosphere, atom, attach, attack, attain, attempt, attend, attention, attitude, ,attract,

    attraction, attractive, audience, aunt, authentic, author, authority, automatic, autonomous,  autumn,

    avenue,  average, avoid, awake(awoke/awaked, awoken/awaked), award, aware, away, awesome, awful,

    awkward

                                                                                                                                                               B

    baby, bachelor, back, background, backward(s), bacon, bacterium(pl. bacteria),  bad(worse-worst),

    badmiton, bag, baggage, bakery, balance, balcony, ball, ballet, balloon, bamboo, ban, banana, ban,

    bandage, bank, bar, barbecue, barber, barbershop, bare, bargain, bark, barrier, baseball, basement, base,

    basic, basin, basis, basket, basketball, bat, bath, bathe, bathroom, bathtub, battery, battle, bay, BC, be (am,

    are, is, was, were, being, been), beach, bean, bean curd, bear (bore, borne/born), beard, beard, beast,

    beat (beat, beat), beautiful, beauty, because, become (became, become), bed, beddings, bedroom, bee,

    beef, beer, before, beg, begin (began, begun ), behalf, behave, behaviour, behind, being, belief,

    believe, bell, belong, below, belt, bench, bend ( bent, bent ), beneath, beneficial, benefit, bent, beside,

    besides, betray, between, beyond, bicycle, bid, big, bike=bicycle, bill, bingo, biochemistry, biography,

    biology, bird, birth, birthday, birthplace, biscuit, bishop, bit, bite (bit, bitten ), bitter, black,

    blackboard, blame, blank, blanket, bleed, bless, blind, block, blood, blouse, blow (blew, blown),

    blue, board, boat, body, boil, bomb, bond, bone, bonus, book, boom, boot, booth, border,

    bored, boring, born, borrow, boss, botanical, both, bother, bottle, bottom, bounce, bound, boundary,

    bow, bowl, bowling, box, boxing, boy, boycott, brain, brake, branch, brand, brave, bravery,

    bread, break (broke, broken ), breakfast, breakthrough, breast, breath, breathe, breathless, brewery,

    brick, bride, bridegroom, bridge, brief, bright, brilliant, bring ( brought, brought ),

    broad, broadcast ( broadcast/broadcasted, broadcast/broadcasted ), brochure, broken, broom,

    brother, brown, brunch, brush, Buddhism, budget, buffet, build (built, built ), building, bunch,

    bungalow, burden, bureaucratic, burglar, burn (burnt/ burned, burnt/ burned), burst ( burst,

    burst ), bury, bus, bush, business, businessman/woman(pl businessmen/women), busy, but, butcher,

    butter, butterfly, button, buy ( bought, bought ), by, bye

    C

    cab, cabbage, café, cafeteria, cage, cake, call, calm, camel, camera, camp, campaign, can, canal cancel, cancer, candidate, candle, candy, canteen, cap, capital, capsule, captain, caption, car, carbon, card, care, careful, careless, carpenter, carpet, carriage, carrier, carrot, carry, carton, carve, case, cash, cassette, cast(cast, cast), castle, casual, cat, catalog(ue), catastrophe, catch (caught, caught ), category, cater, catholic, cattle, cause, caution, cautious, cave, CD=compact disk, ceiling, celebrate, celebration, cell, cent, centigrade, centimeter/er, center/centre, central, century, ceremony, certain, certificate, chain, chair, chairman, chalk, challenge, challenging, champion, chance, change, changeable, channel, chant, chaos, character, characteristic, charge, chapter, chart, chat, cheap, cheap, check (cheque ), cheek, cheerful, cheers, cheese, chef, chemical, chemist, cheer, cheese, chemistry, cheque/check, chess, chest, chew, chicken, chief, child ( pl. children ), childhood, chocolate, choice, choir, choke, choose ( chose, chosen), chopsticks, chorus, Christian, Christmas, church, cigar, cigarette, cinema, circle, circus, citizen, city, civil, civilian, civilization/sation, clap, clarify, class, classic, classify, classmate, classroom, claw, clay, clean, cleaner, clear, clerk, clever, click, climate, climb, clinic, clock, clone, close, cloth, clothes, clothing, cloud, cloudy, club, clumsy, coach, coal, coast, coat, cocoa, coffee, coin, coincidence, coke, cold, collar, colleague, collect, collection, college collision, colour, comb, combine, come ( came, come ), comedy, comfort, comfortable, command, comment, commercial, commit, commitment, committee, common, communicate, communication, communism, communist, companion, company, compare, compass, compensate, compete, competence, competition, complete, complex, component, composition, comprehension, compromise, compulsory, computer, concentrate, concept, concern, concert, conclude, conclusion, concrete, condition, condemn, conduct, conductor, confident, confidential, conference, confirm, conflict, confuse, congratulate, congratulation, connect, connection, conscience, consensus, consequence, conservation, conservative, consider, considerate, consideration, consist, consistent, constant, constitution, construct, construction, consult, consultant, consume, contain, container, contemporary, content, continent, continue, contradict, contradictory, contrary, contribute, contribution, control, controversial, convenience, convenient, conventional, conversation, convey, convince, cook, cooker, cookie, cool, copy, corn, corner, corporation, correct, correction, correspond, corrupt, cost ( cost, cost) , cosy, cottage, cotton, cough, could, count, counter, country, countryside, couple, courage, course, court, courtyard, cousin, cover, cow, crash, crayon, crazy, cream, create, creature, credit, crew, crime, criminal, criterion(pl criteria), crop, cross, crossing, crossroads, crowd, cruel, cry, cube, cubic, cuisine, culture, cup, cupboard, cure, curious, currency, curriculum, curtain, cushion, cushion, custom, customer, customs, cut (cut, cut ),cycle, cyclist

    D

    dad=daddy, daily, dam, damage, damp, dance, danger, dangerous, dare, dark, darkness, dash, data, database, date, daughter, dawn, day, dead, deadline, deaf, deal ( dealt, dealt ), dear, death, debate, debt, decade, decide, decision, declare, decline, decorate, decoration, decrease, deed, deep, deer, defeat, defence / defense, defend, degree, delay, delete, deliberately, dedicate, delicious, delight, delighted, deliver, demand, dentist, department(Dept.), depend, depth, describe, description, desert, deserve, desert, design, desire, desk, desperate, dessert, destination, destroy, detective, determine, develop, development, devote, devotion, diagram, dial, dialogue /dialog, diamond, diary, dictation, dictionary, die, diet, differ,  difference, different, difficult, difficulty, dig ( dug, dug ), digest, digital, dignity, dilemma, dimension, dinner, dinosaur, dioxide, dip, diploma, direct, director, directory, dirt, dirty, disability, disabled, disadvantage, disagree, disagreement, disappear, disappoint, disappointed, disaster, discount, discourage, discover, discovery, discrimination, discuss, discussion, disease, disgusting,  dish, distance, distant, distinction, distinguish, distribute, district, disturb, disturbing, dive, diverse, divide, division, divorce, dizzy,  do ( did, done ), doctor, document, dog, doll, dollar, donate, door, dormitory(dorm), dot, double, doubt, down, download, downstairs, downtown, dozen, Dr=doctor, draft, drag, draw (drew, drawn ), drawback, drawer, dream ( dreamed / dreamt, dreamed / dreamt ), dress, drill, drink (drank, drunk), drive (drove, driven ), drop, drug, drum, drunk, dry, duck, due, dull, dumpling, during, dusk, dustbin, dusty, duty, DVD=digital versatile disk, dynamic, dynasty,

    E

    each, eager, eagle,  ear, early, earn, earth, earthquake, east, Easter, eastern, easy, eat ( ate, eaten ) , ecology, edge, edition, editor, educate, educator, education, effect, effort, egg, eggplant, either, elder, elect, electric, electrical, electricity, electronic, elegant, elephant, else, e-mail, embarrass, embassy, emergency, emperor, employ, empty, encourage, encouragement,  end, ending, endless, enemy, energetic, energy, engineer, enjoy, enjoyable, enlarge, enough, enquiry, enter, enterprise, entertainment, enthusiastic, entire, entrance, entry, envelope, environment, envy, equal, equality, equip, equipment, eraser, error, erupt, escape, especially, essay, Europe, European, evaluate, even, evening, event, ever, ever since, for ever, every, everybody/everyone, everything, everywhere, evidence, evident, evolution, exact, examination/ exam, examine, example, excellent, except, exchange,  excite, excuse, exercise, exhibition, exist, existence, exit, expand, expect, expectation, expense,  expensive, experience, experiment, expert, explain, explanation, explicit , explode, exploreexportexpose express, expression, extension, extra, extraordinary , extreme, eye, eyesight ,

    F

    Face, facial , fact, factory, fade, fail, failure, fair, faith, fall ( fell, fallen), false, familiar, family, famous, fan, fancy, fantastic, fantasy, far(farther, farthestfurther, furthest), fare, farm, farmer, fast, fasten, fat, father, fault, favor, favorite, fear, feast, feather, federal, fee, feed (fed, fed), feel (felt, felt), feel like doing, feeling, fellow, female, fence, ferry, festival, fetch, fever, few, fibre/er, fiction, field, fierce, fight (fought, fought), figure, file, fill, film, final, finance, find (found, found ), fine, finger, fingernail, finish, fire, fireworks, firm, fish, fist, fit, fix, flag, flame, flash, flashlight, flat, flee(fled, fled), flexible, flesh, flight, float, flood, floor, flour, flow, flower, flu, fluency, fluent, fly (flew, flown), fly, focus, fog, foggy, fold, folk, follow, fond, food, fool, foolish, foot (pl. feet ), football, for, forbid ( forbade, forbidden), force, forecast, forehead, foreign, foreigner, foresee(foresaw, foreseen), forest, forever, forget (forgot, forgot/forgotten ), forgetful, forgive ( forgave, forgiven), fork, form, format, former, fortnight, fortunate, fortune, forty, forward, found, fountain, fox, franc, fragile, fragrant, framework, free, set free, freedom, freeway, freeze (frozen, frozen), freezing, frequent, fresh, friction, fridge (refrigerator) , friend, friendly, friendship, frighten, frog, from, front, frontier, frost, fruit, fry, fuel, full, fun, function, fundamental, funeral, funny, fur, furnished, furniture, further, future

    G

    gain, gallery, gallon, game, garage, garbage, garden, garlic, garment, gas, gate, gather, gay, general, generation, generous, gentle, gentleman, (pl. gentlemen),  geography, geometry, gesture, get ( got, got ), gift, gifted, giraffe, girl, give ( gave, given), glad, glance, glarer, glass, globe, glory, glove, glue, go (went, gone), goal, goat, god, gold, golden, golf, good, goods, goose (pl. geese), govern, government, grade, gradual, graduate, graduation, grain, gram, grammar, grand, grandchild, granddaughter, grandma=grandmother, grandpa=grandfather, grandparents, grandson, granny, grape, graph, grasp, grass, grateful gravity, great, green, greengrocer, greet, greeting, grey/gray, grill, grocer, grocery, ground, group, grow (grew, grown ), growth, guarantee, guard, guess, guest, guidance, guide, guilty, guitar, gun, gym=gymnasium, gymnastics

                                            H

    habit, hair, haircut, half, hall, ham, hammer, hamburger, hand, handbag, handful, handkerchief, handle, handsome, handwriting, handy, hang (hung, hung; hanged, hanged), happen, happiness, happy, harbor(u)r, hard, hardly, hardship, hardworking, harm, harmful, harmony,  harvest, hat, hatch, hate, have (had, had ), he, head, headache, headline, headmaster/mistress, health, healthy, hear (heard, heard), hearing, heart, heat, heaven, heavy, heel, height, helicopter, hello, helmet, help, here, hesitate, hero, hers, herself, hi, hide (hid, hidden), high, highway, hill, him, himself, hire, his, history, hit ( hit, hit), hobby, hold (held, held), hole, holiday, holy, home, homeland, hometown, homework, honest, honesty, honor, hook, hope, hopeful,  hopeless, horrible, horse, hospital, host, hostess, hot, hotdog, hotel, hour, house, housewife, housework, how, however, howl, hug, huge, human, human being, humorous, homo(u)r, hundred, hunger, hungry, hurry, hurt (hurt, hurt), husband, hydrogen,

                                           I

    I, ice, ice-cream, idea, identify, identification, idiom, if, ignore, ill, illegal, illness, imagine, immediately, immigration, import, important, impossible, impress, impression, improve, in, inch, incident, include, income, increase, indeed, independence, independent, indicate, industry, influence, inform, information, initial, injure, injury, ink, inn, innocent, insect, insert, inside, insist, inspect, inspire, instant, instead, institute, instruct, instruction, instrument, insurance, insure, intelligence, intend, intention, interest, interesting, international, interrupt, interval, interview, into, introduce, introduction, invent, invention, invitation, invite, iron, irrigation, is, island, it, its, itself

    J

    jacket, jam, jar, jaw, jazz, jeans, jeep, jet, jewel(l)ery, job, jog, join, joke, journalist, journey, joy, judge, judg(e)ment, juice, jump, jungle, junior, just, justice

                                           K

    kangaroo, keep (kept, kept ), kettle, key, keyboard, kick, kid, kill, kilo, kilometer/kilometer, kind, kindergarten, kindness, king, kingdom, kiss, kitchen, kite, knee, knife(pl knives), knock, know (knew, known ), knowledge

    L

    lab, labor, lack, lady, lake, lamb, lame, lamp, land, language, lantern, lap, large, last, late, latter,  laugh, laughter, law, lawyer, lay (laid, laid), lazy, lead (led, led ), leader, leaf(pl leaves), league, leak, learn (learnt/ learned, learnt/ learned), least, leather, leave (left, left), lecture, left, leg, legal, lemon, lemonade, lend (lent, lent ), length, lesson, let, letter, level, liberty, liberation, librarian, library, license, lid, lie (lay, lain ), lie, life, lift, light (lit/lighted, lit/ lighted), lightning, like, likely, limit, line, link, lion, lip, liquid, list, listen, literature, literary, liter/litre, little , live, lively, load, loaf, local, lock, lonely, long, look, link, loose, lorry, lose (lost, lost), loss, lot, loud, lounge, love, lovely, low, luck, lucky, luggage, lunch, lung                                     

    M

    machine, mad, madam/ madame, magazine, magic, maid, mail, mailbox (letter box), main, mainland, major, majority, make (made, made ), male, man ( pl. men ), manage, manager, manner, many(more, most), map, maple, marathon, marble, march, mark, market, marriage, marry, mask, mass, master, mat, match, material, mathematics /maths, matter, mature, maximum, may, maybe, me, meal, mean (meant, meant ), meaning, means, meanwhile, measure, meat, medal, media,  medical, medicine, medium, meet (met, met ), meeting, melon, member, memorial, memory, mend, mental, mention, menu, merchant, merciful, mercy, merely, merry, mess, message, messy, metal, method, meter/metre, microscope, microwave, middle, midnight, might, mild, mile, milk, millionaire, mind, mine, mineral, minibus, minimum, minister, ministry, minority, minus, minute, mirror, miss, missile, mist, mistake ( mistook, mistaken ), misunderstand(misunderstood, misunderstood) mix, mixture, mm=millimeter, mobile, model, modem, modern, modest, mom/mum moment, mommy/mummy, money, monitor, monkey, month, monument, moon, mop, moral,  more(much, many), morning, Moslem, mosquito, mother, motherland, motivation, motor, motorcycle, motto, mountain, mountainous, mourn, mouse (pl. mice ), moustache, mouth, move, movement, movie, Mr.(mister), Mrs(mistress)., Ms, mud, muddy, multiply, murder, museum, mushroom, music, musical, musician, must, mustard, mutton, my, myself

                                           N

    nail, name, narrow, nation, national , nationality, nationwide, native, natural, nature, navy, near, nearby, nearly, neat, necessary, neck, necklace, need, needle, negotiate, neighbour, neighbourhood, neither, nephew, nervous, nest, net, network, never, new, news, newspaper, next, nice, niece, no, No.=number, noble, nobody, nod, noise, noisy, none, noodle, noon, nor, normal, north, northeast, northern, northwest, nose, not, note, notebook, nothing, notice, novel, novelist, now, nowadays, nowhere, nuclear, numb, number, nurse, nursery, nut, nutrition

                                           O

    obey, object, observe, obtain, obvious, occupation, occupy, occur, ocean, Oceania, o’clock, of, off, offence, offer, office, officer, official, offshore, often, oh, oil, oilfield, O.K, old, Olympic(s), on, once, one, oneself, onion, only, onto, open, opening, opera, operate, operation, operator, opinion, oppose, opposite, optimistic, optional, or, oral, orange, orbit, order, ordinary, organ, organize/ organise, organization/sation, origin, other, otherwise, ought, our, ours, ourselves, out, outcome, outdoors, outer, outgoing, outing, outline, output, outside, outspoken, outstanding, outwards, oval, over, overcoat, overcome, overhead, overlook, overweight, owe, own, owner, ownership, ox (pl. oxen), oxygen

                                          P

    pace, Pacific, pack, package, packet, paddle, page, pain, painful, paint, painter, painting, pair, palace, pale, pan, pancake, panda, panic, paper, paperwork, paragraph, parallel, parcel, pardon, parent, park, parking, parrot, part, party, participate, particular, partly, partner, part-time,  pass, passage, passenger, passer-by (pl. passers-by), passive, passport, past, patent, path, patient, patience, pattern, pause, pavement,  pay (paid, paid ), P.E.=physical education, P.C.=personal computer, pea, peace, peach, peaceful, pear, pedestrian,  pen, pencil, pence, penny, pension, people, pepper, per, percent, percentage,  perfect, perform, performance, performer, perfume, perhaps, period, permanent, permission, permit, person, personal, personnel, personally, persuade, pest, pet, petrol, phenomenon(pl. phenomena) ,photo/ photograph, photographer, phrase, physical, physician, physicist, physics, pianist, piano, pick, picnic picnicked), picture, pie, piece, pig, pile, pill, pillow, pilot, pin, pine, pineapple, ping-pong, pink, pint, pioneer,  pipe, pity, place, plain, plan, plane, planet, plant, plastic, plate, platform, play, playground, pleasant, please, pleased, pleasure, plenty, plot, plug, plus, p.m./pm, P.M./PM, pocket, poem, poet, point, poison, poisonous, pole, police, policeman (pl. policemen), policy, polish, polite, political, politician,  politics, pollute, pollution, pond, pool, poor, pop=popular, popcorn,  popular, population, pork, porridge, port, portable, porter, position, possibility, possession, possible, post, postage, postcard, postcode, poster, postman(pl. postmen), postpone,  pot, potato,  potential, pound, pour, powder, power, powerful,  practical ,practice, practise, praise, pray, prayer,  precious, precise, predict, prefer, preference, pregnant, prejudice, premier, preparation,  prepare, prescription, present, presentation, preserve,  president, press, pressure, pretend, pretty, prevent, preview, precious, price, pride, primary, primitive, principle, print, prison, prisoner, private, privilege, prize, probably, problem, procedure, process, produce, product, production, profession,  professor, profit, program/ programme, progress, prohibit, project, promise, promote,  pronounce, pronunciation, proper, properly,  protect, protection,  proud, prove (proved, proved/proven), provide, province, psychology, pub, public,  publish, pull, pulse,  pump, punctual, punctuation, punish, punishment, pupil, purchase, pure, purple, purpose, purse, push, put ( put, put ), puzzle, pyramid,

                                           Q

    quake, qualification, quality, quantity, quarrel, quarter, queen, questionquestionnaire, queue, quick, quiet, quilt, quit, quite, quiz,

                                           R

    rabbit, race, racial, radiation, radio, radioactive, radium, rag, rail, railway, rain, rainbow, raincoat, rainfall, rainy, raise, random, range, rank,  rapid, rare, rat, rate, rather, raw,  ray, razor, reach, react,  read (read, read), reading,  ready, real, reality, realize/realize, really, reason, reasonable, rebuild(rebuilt, rebuilt), receipt, receive, receiver, recent, reception, receptionist, recipe, recite,  recognize, recommend, record, recorder, recover, recreation, recycle, rectangle, red, reduce, refer, referee, reference, reflect, reform, refresh, refrigerator, refuse, regard, regardless, register, regret, regular, regulation, reject, relate, relation, relationship, relative, relax, relay, relevant, reliable, relief, religion, religious, rely, remain, remark, remember, remind, remote, remove, rent, repair, repeat, replace, reply, report, reporter, represent, representative, republic, reputation, request, require, requirement, rescue, research, resemble, reservation, reserve, resign, resist, respect, respond, responsibility, rest, restaurant, restriction, result, retell, retire, return, review, revision, revolution, reward, rewind, rhyme, rice, rich, rid(rid, ridridded, ridded),riddle, ridiculous, ride (rode, ridden), right, ring (rang, rung), rigid,  ripe, ripen, rise (rose, risen), risk, river, road, roast, rob, robot, rock, rocket, role, roll, roof, room, rooster, root, rose, rot, rough, round, roundabout, routine, row, royal, rubber, rubbish, rude, rugby,ruin, rule, ruler, run (ran, run), rush

     

                                           S

    sacred, sacrifice, sad, sadness, safe, safely, sail, sailor, salad, salary, sale, salesgirl, salesman/woman, salt, salty, salute, same, sand, sandwich, satellite, satisfaction, satisfy, saucer, sausage, save, say (said, said), saying, scan, scar, scare, scarf, scene, scenery, skeptical/skeptical, schedule, school, scholar, scholarship, schoolbag, schoolboy/girl, schoolmate, science, scientific, scientist, scissors, scold, score, scratch, scream, screen, sculpture, sea, seagull, seal, search, seashell, seaside, season, seat, seaweed, second, secret, secretary, section, secure, security, see (saw, seen), seed, seek, seem, seize, seldom, select, seldom, selfish, sell (sold, sold), semicircle, seminar, send (sent, sent), sense, sensitive, sentence, separate, separation, serious, servant, serve, service, session, set (set, set), settle, settlement, settler, several, sew (sewed, sewn/ sewed), sex, shabby, shade, shadow, shake (shook, shaken), shall, shallow, shame, shape, share, shark, sharp, sharpen, sharpener, shave (shaved, shaved/shaven), shaver, she, sheep (pl sheep), sheet, shelf(pl shelves), shelter, shine (shone, shone), ship, shirt, shock, shoe, shoot (shot, shot), shop, shopkeeper, shopping, shore, short, shortcoming, shortly, shorts, shot, should, shoulder, shout, show (showed, shown/showed), shower, shrink(shrankshrunk, shrunken), shut (shut, shut), shy, sick, sickness, side, sideroad/sidewalk, sideway, sideways, sigh, sight, sightseeing, signal, signature,  significance, silence, silent, silk, silly, silver, similar, simple, simplify, since, sincerely, sing (sang, sung), single, sink (sunk, sunk), sir, sister, sit (sat, sat), situation, size, skate, skateboard, ski, skill, skilful, skin, skirt, sky, skyscraper, slave, slavery, sleep (slept, slept), sleepy, sleeve, slice, slide, slight, slightly, slim, slip, slow, small, smart, smell (smelt/smelled, smelt/ smelled), smile, smog, smoke, smoker, smooth, snake, sneaker, sneeze, sniff, snow, so, soap, sob, soccer, social, socialism, socialist, society, sock, socket, sofa, soft, software, soil, solar, soldier, solid, some, somebody/someone, somehow, something, sometime, somewhere, son, song, soon, sorrow, sorry, sort, soul, sound, soup, sour, south, southeast, southern, southwest, souvenir, sow(sowed, sown/-ed), space, spaceship, spade, spare, sparrow, speak (spoke, spoken), speaker, spear, special, specialist, specific, speech, speed, spell, spelling, spend (spent, spent), spin, spirit, spiritual, spit, splendid, split, spoken, spokesman/woman, sponsor, spoon, spoonful, sport, spot, spray, spread spread, spread, spring, spy, square, squeeze, squirrel, stable, stadium, staff, stage, stain, stainless, stair, stamp, stand (stood, stood), standard, star, stare, start, starve, starvation, state, station, statement, statesman/woman, statistics, statue, status, stay, steady, steak, steal (stole, stolen), steam, steel, step, steward, stewardess, stick (stuck, stuck), still, stocking, stomach, stone, stop, storage, store, storm, story, stout, stove, straight, straightforward, strait, strange, stranger, straw, strawberry, stream, street, strength, strengthen, stress, strict, strike (struck, struck/stricken), strong, struggle, stubborn, student, studio, study, stupid, style, subject, subjective, summit, subscribe, substitute, succeed, success, successful, such, suddenly, suffer, suffering, sugar, suggest, suggestion, suit, suitable, suitcase, suite, summary, summer, sun, sunburnt, sunlight, sunny, sunshine, super, superb, superior, supermarket, supper, supply, support, suppose, supreme, sure, surface, surgeon, surplus, surprise, surround, surrounding, survival, survive, suspect, suspension, swallow, swap, swear(swore, sworn), sweat, sweater, sweep (swept, swept), sweet, swell(swelled, swollen), swift, swim (swam, swum), swing, switch, sword, symbol, sympathy, symphony, symptom, system, systematic

                                            T

    table, table tennis, tablet, tail, tailor, take (took, taken), tale, talent, talk, tall, tank, tap, tape, target,  task, taste, tasteless, tasty, tax, taxi, taxpayer, tea, teach (taught, taught), teacher, team, teamwork, teapot, tear (tore, torn), tease, technical, technique, technology, teenager,  telephone, telescope, television, tell (told, told), temperature ,temple, temporary, tend, tendency, tennis, tense, tension, tent, tentative, term, terminal, terrible, terrify, terror, test, text, textbook, than, thank, thankful, that, the, theatre/ theater, theft, their, theirs, them, theme, themselves, then, theoretical, theory, there, therefore, thermos, these, they, thick, thief ( pl. thieves), thin, thing, think (thought, thought), thinking, thirst, this, thorough, those, though, thought, thread, thrill, thriller, throat, through, throughout, throw (threw, thrown), thunder, thunderstorm, thus, tick, ticket, tidy, tie, tiger, tight, till, time, timetable, tin, tiny, tip, tire, tired, tiresome, tissue, title, to, toast, tobacco, today, together, toilet, tolerate, tomato, tomb, tomorrow, ton, tongue, tonight, too, tool, tooth (pl. teeth), toothache, toothbrush, toothpaste, top, topic, tortoise, total, touch, tough, tour, tourism, tourist, tournament, toward(s), towel, tower, town, toy, track, tractor, trade, tradition, traditional, traffic, train, training, tram, transform, translate, translation, translator, transparent, transport, trap, travel, traveller, treasure, treat, treatment, tree, tremble, trend, trial, triangle, trick, trip, trolleybus, troop, trouble, troublesome, trousers, truck, true, truly, trunk, trust, truth, try, T-shirt, tube, tune, turkey, turn, turning, tutor, TV=television, twice, twin, twist, type, typewriter, typical, typhoon, typist, tyre/tire

                                           U

    ugly, umbrella, unable, unbearable, unbelievable, uncertain, uncle, uncomfortable, unconditional, unconscious, under, underground, underline, understand (understood, understood), undertake (undertook, undertaken), underwear, unemployment, unfair, unfit, unfortunate, uniform, union, unique, unit, unite, universal, universe, university, unless, unlike, unrest, until, unusual, unwilling,  up, update, upon, upper, upset, upstairs, upward(s), urban, urge, urgent, use, used, useful, useless, user, usual

                                           V

    vacation, vacant, vague, vain, valid, valley, valuable, value, variety, various, vase, vast, VCD=versatile compact disk, vegetable, vehicle, version, vertical, very, vest, via, vice, victim, victory, video, videophone, view, village, villager, vinegar, violate, violence, violent, violin, violinist, virtue, virus, visa, visit, visitor, visual, vital, vivid, vocabulary, voice, volcano, volleyball, voluntary, volunteer, vote, voyage

                                           W

    wag, wage, waist, wait, waiter, waiting-room, waitress, wake (woke, woken), walk, wall, wallet, walnut, wander, want, war, ward, warehouse, warm, warmth, warn, wash, washroom, waste, watch, water, watermelon, wave, wax, way, we, web, website, weak, weakness, wealth, wealthy, wear ( wore, worn), weather, wedding, weed,  week, weekday, weekend, weekly, weep,  weekend, weigh, weight, welcome, welfare, well, well (better, best) , well-known, west, western, westward(s), wet, whale, what, whatever, wheat, wheel, when, whenever, where, wherever, whether, which, while, whisper, whistle,  white, who, whole, whom, whose, why, wide, widespread, widow, wife, wild, wildlife, will, willing, win (won, won), wind, wind (winded/ wound, winded/ wound), window, windy, wine, wing, winner, winter, wipe, wire, wisdom, wise, wish, with, withdraw, within, without, witness, wolf (pl wolves)woman (pl. women), wonder, wonderful, wood, wooden, wool, woolen, word, work, worker, world, worldwide, worm, worn, worried, worry, worth, worthwhile, worthy, would, wound, wrestle, wrinkle, wrist, write (wrote, written), wrong

                                          X

    X-ray

                                          Y

    yard, yawn, year, yell, yellow, yes, yesterday, yet, yoghurt, you, young, your, yours, yourself(pl yourselves), youth

                                           Z

    zebra, zero, zip, zipper, zone, zoo, zoom

     

    数词

    基数词

    序数词

    one

    1st

    first

    two

    2nd

    second

    three

    3rd

    third

    four

    4th

    fourth

    five

    5th

    fifth

    six

    6th

    sixth

    seven

    7th

    seventh

    eight

    8th

    eighth

    nine

    9th

    ninth

    ten

    10th

    tenth

    eleven

    11th

    eleventh

    twelve

    12th

    twelfth

    thirteen

    13th

    thirteenth

    fourteen

    14th

    fourteenth

    fifteen

    15th

    fifteenth

    sixteen

    16th

    sixteenth

    seventeen

    17th

    seventeen

    eighteen

    18th

    eighteenth

    nineteen

    19th

    nineteenth

    twenty

    20th

    twentieth

    twenty-one

    21st

    twenty-first

    twenty-two

    22nd

    twenty-second

    twenty-three

    23rd

    twenty-third

    thirty

    30th

    thirtieth

    forty

    40th

    fortieth

    fifty

    50th

    fiftieth

    sixty

    60th

    sixtieth

    seventy

    70th

    seventieth

    eighty

    80th

    eightieth

    ninety

    90th

    ninetieth

    one hundred

    100th

    one hundredth

    one hundred (and) one

    101th

    one hundred and first

    one hundred (and) two

    102th

    one hundred and second

    three hundred

    300th

    three hundredth

    one thousand

    1 000th

    one thousandth

    three thousand

    3 000th

    three thousandth

    Ten thousand

    10 000th

    ten thousandth

    one million

    1 000 000th

    one millionth

    one billion

    1 000 000 000th

    one billionth

    月份January(Jan.)       February Feb.)     March (Mar.)      April (Apr.)         May (May)   

    June (Jun.)            July (Jul.)           August (Aug.)     September (Sept.)  October (Oct.) November (Nov.)  December (Dec.)

    星期 Monday (Mon.)    Tuesday (Tues.)     Wednesday (Wed.) Thursday (Thurs.)  Friday (Fri.)

            Saturday (Sat.)     Sunday (Sun.)

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